Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual intimate problems…

Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual intimate problems…

Same-sex behavior that is sexual

Every 2-minute period that were coded as containing one or more sort of sexual intercourse monitored in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse suggested, sexual activity depicted, as well as other intimate behavior 2 ended up being additionally examined for the existence of same-sex behavior that is sexual. Because of this product, programmers utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted within the period happened between two different people of this exact same intercourse.

Speak about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual

Each 2-minute period that have been coded as containing one or more example of talk from the sexual talk categories found in the key coding task ( ag e.g., feedback about own/others’ intimate actions or passions, speak about sexual activity who has currently occurred, speak about sex crimes) ended up being additionally coded for whether some of the intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals. Because of this product, programmers again used a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual talk reflected the intimate passions or issues of nonheterosexual people. Most frequently, such remarks regarding gays and lesbians, although sporadically these were related to bisexuals.

Intimate commentary involving homosexual and references that are lesbian have purposes other than portraying the intimate issues among these teams such as for instance usage by right figures to reaffirm their heterosexuality or even to tease someone else. Therefore, requirements had been founded to ensure this product had been coded “yes” for an period only if speak about intercourse involving nonheterosexual references really addressed sexual dilemmas of gays, lesbians, or bisexuals; otherwise, the responses had been coded inside their appropriate intimate talk category but did not count toward a yes reaction because of this product. For instance, if a male character were to guard his present dating dry spell and not enough sex-life by asserting, “Well, it isn’t like i am homosexual; i recently have not met just the right girl!” such a comment could have been coded in the primary coding task within the intimate talk category “own/others’ intimate interests or actions” because he produced mention of their intimate fascination with females, however the mention of perhaps not being homosexual wouldn’t normally have counted toward a confident a reaction to the product on speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas.

System Coding

Coder training

When it comes to very first 12 months’s content analysis, 16 pupils (10 females, 6 men) from regional universities served as programmers; when you look at the 2nd 12 months, 13 programmers (8 females, 5 men) have been either present university students or current graduates carried out the information coding. Six of this programmers labored on both content analyses. The stages of coder training included orientation towards the coding task and codebook, big team coding of programs maybe perhaps maybe not within the test with supervisors, and lastly individual coding of training programs where coders evaluated shows separately after which talked about the outcome period by period in weekly conferences. Initial dependability analyses had been carried out on information gathered through the individual training stage of training to ascertain whenever programmers could continue aided by the coding task that is actual. The dependability analyses presented below, however, relate genuinely to assessments of coder contract acquired through the coding of a subset of programs into the scheduled system examples.

Coding procedures

Programmers viewed sequential 2-minute periods of system some time coded the absence or presence of intimate behavior and discuss sex regarding nonheterosexuals. Because the coding had been restricted to program content and excluded commercials along with other promotions, programmers utilized kitchen area timers while the counters in the videocassette recorders to trace 2-minute periods of system time. Programmers recorded information on scannable kinds for every single period while they viewed it. Although programmers had been permitted to carry information forward (i.e., use information presented in prior periods to comprehend the information in later people), these people were maybe maybe perhaps not permitted to rule backwards (for example., use information learned later in system to return and alter the coding in an early on period). All opening credits and the ones shutting credits combined with content through the present episode (i.e., your final scene) had been coded.

Interrater Reliability Analyses

About 11 to 12per cent for the programs within the system examples (letter = 157 and n = 154 for the very very very first and content that is second, respectively) had been arbitrarily assigned to two programmers for separate coding and dependability evaluation. The coders then met to resolve any discrepancies in the two sets of ratings and produce a final set of ratings for the show that was used in data analyses of the entire program sample after both coders’ data had been recorded and analyzed for reliability purposes. Assessment of reliability ended up being carried out for a basis that is ongoing the 4 to 5 months it took programmers to accomplish the whole system test every year. Programs out of each and every genre and each community type had been within the dependability analyses. Genres were represented when you look at the double-coded examples in approximate percentage with their representation into the general system examples.

The number of 2-minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency with which same-sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode for purposes of reliability assessment. This summing resulted in converting nominal data (i.e., presence/absence) during the 2-minute-interval degree into regularity counts during the program degree (wide range of periods for which same-sex sexual behavior took place in the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation regarding the percentage of variance into the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for xlovecam opportunity. For period information like the regularity matters used right right here, the ICC is equivalent to Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been utilized whilst the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both things utilized to measure the presence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion. The ICC for same-sex intimate behavior ended up being .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for mention nonheterosexual intimate problems ended up being .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.

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